Quelles sont les principales sources scientifiques concernant les additifs ?

Mis à jour le 5/4/22 par Benoit

Acero S, Tabar AI, Alvarez MJ, Garcia BE, Olaguibel JM, Moneo I. Occupational asthma and food allergy due to carmine. Allergy. 1998;53(9):897-901. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.1998.tb03998.x https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9788693/


Ali MY, Hassan GM, Hassan AMS, Mohamed ZA, Ramadan MF. In vivo genotoxicity assessment of sunset yellow and sodium benzoate in female rats. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2020;43(5):504-513. doi:10.1080/01480545.2018.1510416 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30208729/


ANSES, 2011. Étude de l’alimentation totale française 2 (EAT 2) Tome 2 - Résidus de pesticides, additifs, acrylamide, hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques. https://www.anses.fr/fr/system/files/PASER2006sa0361Ra2.pdf


ANSES, 2015. Avis de l’Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail relatif à l’évaluation des substances inscrites au programme de travail 2015 de l’Agence dans le cadre de la Stratégie nationale sur les perturbateurs endocriniens (SNPE): l’ATBC (acétylcitrate de tributyle(n°CAS 77-90-7), le TBC (citratede tributyle, n° CAS 77-94-1), le BHT (hydroxytoluene butylé, n°CAS 128-37-0), l’acide téréphtalique (n° CAS 100-21-0), le méthyl salicylate (n°CAS 119-36-8) et l’iprodione (n° CAS 36734-19-7). https://www.anses.fr/fr/system/files/REACH2016RE0001.pdf


ANSES, 2015. Avis du 19 novembre 2014 révisé le 9 janvier 2015 relatif à l’évaluation des bénéfices et des risques nutritionnels des édulcorants intenses. Saisine n°2011-SA-0161. https://www.anses.fr/fr/system/files/NUT2011sa0161Ra.pdf


ANSES, 2015. Avis relatif à l’évaluation des apports en vitamines et minéraux issus de l'alimentation non enrichie, de l’alimentation enrichie et des compléments alimentaires dans la population française : estimation des apports usuels, des prévalences d'inadéquation et des risques de dépassement des limites de sécurité. Saisine n°2012-SA-0142. https://www.anses.fr/fr/system/files/NUT2012sa0142.pdf


ANSES, 2017. Avis de l’Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail relatif à une demande d'avis relatif à l’exposition alimentaire aux nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane. https://www.anses.fr/fr/system/files/ERCA2017SA0020.pdf


ANSES, 2019. Avis de l’Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail relatif aux risques liés à l’ingestion de l’additif alimentaire E171. https://www.anses.fr/fr/system/files/ERCA2019SA0036.pdf


Arnold LE, Lofthouse N, Hurt E. Artificial food colors and attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms: conclusions to dye for. Neurotherapeutics. 2012;9(3):599-609. doi:10.1007/s13311-012-0133-x https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3441937/


Azad MB, Abou-Setta AM, Chauhan BF, et al. Nonnutritive sweeteners and cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. CMAJ. 2017;189(28):E929-E939. doi:10.1503/cmaj.161390 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28716847/


Baad-Hansen L, Cairns B, Ernberg M, Svensson P. Effect of systemic monosodium glutamate (MSG) on headache and pericranial muscle sensitivity. Cephalalgia. 2010;30(1):68-76. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2982.2009.01881.x https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19438927/


Baldwin JL, Chou AH, Solomon WR. Popsicle-induced anaphylaxis due to carmine dye allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1997;79(5):415-419. doi:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)63035-9 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9396973/


Beards E, Tuohy K, Gibson G. A human volunteer study to assess the impact of confectionery sweeteners on the gut microbiota composition. Br J Nutr. 2010;104(5):701-708. doi:10.1017/S0007114510001078 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20370946/


Beezhold BL, Johnston CS, Nochta KA. Sodium benzoate-rich beverage consumption is associated with increased reporting of ADHD symptoms in college students: a pilot investigation. J Atten Disord. 2014;18(3):236-241. doi:10.1177/1087054712443156 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22538314/


Bettini S, Boutet-Robinet E, Cartier C, et al. Food-grade TiO2 impairs intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis, initiates preneoplastic lesions and promotes aberrant crypt development in the rat colon. Sci Rep. 2017;7:40373. Published 2017 Jan 20. doi:10.1038/srep40373 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28106049/


Bian X, Chi L, Gao B, Tu P, Ru H, Lu K. The artificial sweetener acesulfame potassium affects the gut microbiome and body weight gain in CD-1 mice. PLoS One. 2017;12(6):e0178426. Published 2017 Jun 8. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0178426 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28594855/


Boonnate P, Waraasawapati S, Hipkaeo W, et al. Monosodium Glutamate Dietary Consumption Decreases Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Adult Wistar Rats. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0131595. Published 2015 Jun 29. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0131595 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26121281/


Borzelleca JF, Depukat K, Hallagan JB. Lifetime toxicity/carcinogenicity studies of FD & C Blue No. 1 (brilliant blue FCF) in rats and mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 1990;28(4):221-234. doi:10.1016/0278-6915(90)90034-k https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2358248/


Calvo MS, Tucker KL. Is phosphorus intake that exceeds dietary requirements a risk factor in bone health?. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013;1301:29-35. doi:10.1111/nyas.12300 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24472074/

Calvo MS, Uribarri J. Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(1):6-15. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.053934 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23719553/

Carocho M, Morales P, Ferreira ICFR. Sweeteners as food additives in the XXI century: A review of what is known, and what is to come. Food Chem Toxicol. 2017;107(Pt A):302-317. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2017.06.046 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28689062/


Chang AR, Lazo M, Appel LJ, Gutiérrez OM, Grams ME. High dietary phosphorus intake is associated with all-cause mortality: results from NHANES III [published correction appears in Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;105(4):1021]. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99(2):320-327. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.073148 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24225358/


Chassaing B, Koren O, Goodrich JK, et al. Dietary emulsifiers impact the mouse gut microbiota promoting colitis and metabolic syndrome [published correction appears in Nature. 2016 Aug 11;536(7615):238]. Nature. 2015;519(7541):92-96. doi:10.1038/nature14232 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25731162/


Chassaing B, Van de Wiele T, De Bodt J, Marzorati M, Gewirtz AT. Dietary emulsifiers directly alter human microbiota composition and gene expression ex vivo potentiating intestinal inflammation. Gut. 2017;66(8):1414-1427. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2016-313099 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28325746/


Clemmensen O, Hjorth N. Perioral contact urticaria from sorbic acid and benzoic acid in a salad dressing. Contact Dermatitis. 1982;8(1):1-6. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1982.tb04126.x https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7067435/


Crowe W, Elliott CT, Green BD. A Review of the In Vivo Evidence Investigating the Role of Nitrite Exposure from Processed Meat Consumption in the Development of Colorectal Cancer. Nutrients. 2019;11(11):2673. Published 2019 Nov 5. doi:10.3390/nu11112673 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31694233/


Csáki KF. Synthetic surfactant food additives can cause intestinal barrier dysfunction. Med Hypotheses. 2011;76(5):676-681. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2011.01.030 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21300443/


CSPI, 2011. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Petition to bar the use of caramel colorings produced with ammonia and containing certain carcinogens. https://cspinet.org/sites/default/files/attachment/caramel_coloring_petition.pdf


CSPI, 2012. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Lab tests find Carcinogen in regular diet coke and pepsi (CSPI) https://www.cspinet.org/new/201203051.html


Davalli AM, Perego C, Folli FB. The potential role of glutamate in the current diabetes epidemic. Acta Diabetol. 2012;49(3):167-183. doi:10.1007/s00592-011-0364-z https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22218826/


DiCello MC, Myc A, Baker JR Jr, Baldwin JL. Anaphylaxis after ingestion of carmine colored foods: two case reports and a review of the literature. Allergy Asthma Proc. 1999;20(6):377-382. doi:10.2500/108854199778251816 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10624494/


ECHA, 2017. Titanium dioxide proposed to be classified as suspected of causing cancer when inhaled. https://echa.europa.eu/fr/-/titanium-dioxide-proposed-to-be-classified-as-suspected-of-causing-cancer-when-inhaled


EFSA, 2004. NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2004. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic products, nutrition and allergies [NDA] on a request from the Commission relating to the evaluation of allergenic foods for labelling purposes. EFSA Journal 2004;32, 197 pp. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2004.32


EFSA, 2005. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives,  Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food  on a request from the Commission related to  Semicarbazide in foods (2005) https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2005.219


EFSA, 2008. Assessment of the results of the study by McCann et al.(2007) on the effect of some colours and sodium benzoate on children's behaviour‐Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Food Contact Materials (AFC). EFSA Journal, 6(3), 660. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2008.660


EFSA, 2008. EFSA evaluates Southampton study on food additives and child behaviour. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/press/news/080314


EFSA, 2009. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources Added to Food. (2009). Scientific Opinion on the re‐evaluation Tartrazine (E 102). EFSA Journal, 7(11), 1331. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1331


EFSA, 2010. Long‐term dietary exposure to different food colours in young children living in different European countries. EFSA Supporting Publications, 7(5), 53E. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/sp.efsa.2010.EN-53


EFSA, 2010. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS). (2010). Scientific Opinion on the re‐evaluation of Brilliant Blue FCF (E 133) as a food additive. EFSA Journal, 8(11), 1853. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1853


EFSA, 2010. Scientific Opinion on the appropriateness of the food azo-colours Tartrazine (E 102), Sunset Yellow FCF (E 110), Carmoisine (E 122), Amaranth (E 123), Ponceau 4R (E 124), Allura Red AC (E 129), Brilliant Black BN (E 151), Brown FK (E 154), Brown HT (E 155) and Litholrubine BK (E 180) for inclusion in the list of food ingredients set up in Annex IIIa of Directive 2000/13/EC. EFSA Journal, 8(10):1778 https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1778


EFSA, 2011. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) (2011). Revised exposure assessment for steviol glycosides for the proposed uses as a food additive. EFSA Journal 2011;9(1):1972, 19 pp. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2011.1972 https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2011.1972


EFSA, 2011. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS), 2011. Scientific Opinion on the re‐evaluation of caramel colours (E 150 a, b, c, d) as food additives. EFSA Journal, 9(3), 2004. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2004


EFSA, 2011. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS). (2011). Scientific Opinion on the re‐evaluation of butylated hydroxyanisole–BHA (E 320) as a food additive. EFSA Journal, 9(10), 2392. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2392


EFSA, 2011. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to the sugar replacers xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol, lactitol, isomalt, erythritol, D‐tagatose, isomaltulose, sucralose and polydextrose and maintenance of tooth mineralisation by decreasing tooth demineralisation (ID 463, 464, 563, 618, 647, 1182, 1591, 2907, 2921, 4300), and reduction of post‐prandial glycaemic responses (ID 617, 619, 669, 1590, 1762, 2903, 2908, 2920) pursuant to Article 13 (1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal, 9(4), 2076. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2076


EFSA, 2012. European Food Safety Authority. (2012). Refined exposure assessment for caramel colours (E 150a, c, d). EFSA Journal, 10(12), 3030. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2012.3030


EFSA, 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS). (2012). Scientific Opinion on the re‐evaluation of butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal, 10(3), 2588. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2588


EFSA, 2013. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 2013;11(12):3496. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3496


EFSA, 2014. ANS Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the revised exposure assessment of steviol glycosides (E 960) for the proposed uses as a food additive. EFSA Journal 2014;12(5):3639, 23 pp. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3639


EFSA, 2015. ANS Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the extension of use of steviol glycosides (E 960) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 2015;13(6):4146, 20 pp. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4146


EFSA, 2015. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS). (2015). Scientific Opinion on the re‐evaluation of cochineal, carminic acid, carmines (E 120) as a food additive. EFSA Journal, 13(11), 4288. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4288


EFSA, 2015. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS). (2015). Scientific Opinion on the re‐evaluation of sorbic acid (E 200), potassium sorbate (E 202) and calcium sorbate (E 203) as food additives. EFSA Journal, 13(6), 4144. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4144


EFSA, 2015. Refined exposure assessment for Allura Red AC (E 129). EFSA Journal, 13(2), 4007. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4007


EFSA, 2016. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources (ANS). (2016). Scientific Opinion on the re‐evaluation of benzoic acid (E 210), sodium benzoate (E 211), potassium benzoate (E 212) and calcium benzoate (E 213) as food additives. EFSA Journal, 14(3), 4433. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4433


EFSA, 2016. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of sulfur dioxide (E 220), sodium sulfite (E 221), sodium bisulfite (E 222), sodium metabisulfite (E 223), potassium metabisulfite (E 224), calcium sulfite (E 226), calcium bisulfite (E 227) and potassium bisulfite (E 228) as food additives. EFSA Journal 2016; 14(4): 4438. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4438


EFSA, 2017. ANS Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food), 2017. Statement on the validity of the conclusions of a mouse carcinogenicity study on sucralose (E 955) performed by the Ramazzini Institute. EFSA Journal 2017; 15( 5):4784, 14 pp. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4784


EFSA, 2017. Call for technical and toxicological data on sweeteners authorised as food additives in the EU. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/engage/170621.pdf


EFSA, 2017. Efsa Re-evaluation of potassium nitrite (E 249) and sodium nitrite (E 250) as food additives. EFSA Journal 2017;15(6):4786. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4786


EFSA, 2017. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) (2017). Re‐evaluation of glycerol (E 422) as a food additive. EFSA Journal, 15(3), e04720 https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4720


EFSA, 2017. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS), Mortensen, A., Aguilar, F., Crebelli, R., Di Domenico, A., Dusemund, B., ... & Leblanc, J. C. (2017). Re‐evaluation of glutamic acid (E 620), sodium glutamate (E 621), potassium glutamate (E 622), calcium glutamate (E 623), ammonium glutamate (E 624) and magnesium glutamate (E 625) as food additives. EFSA Journal, 15(7), e04910. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4910


EFSA, 2017. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS), Younes, M., Aggett, P., Aguilar, F., Crebelli, R., Dusemund, B., ... & Gundert‐Remy, U. (2017). Re‐evaluation of mono‐and di‐glycerides of fatty acids (E 471) as food additives. EFSA Journal, 15(11), e05045. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5045


EFSA, 2018. Call for food additives usage level and / or concentration data in food and beverages intended for human consumption. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/consultation/callsfordata/180122.pdf


EFSA, 2018. Call for technical and toxicological data on sodium carboxymethylcellulose (E 466) for uses as a food additive in foods for all population groups including infants below 16 weeks of age. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/consultations/call/call-technical-and-toxicological-data-sodium


EFSA, 2018. Call for technical data on the permitted food additive glycerol (E 422). https://ec.europa.eu/food/system/files/2019-01/fs_food-improvement-agents_reeval_call_20181123_e422_data.pdf


EFSA, 2018. Call for technological data on mono- and di-glycerides of fatty acids (E 471) for uses as a food additive in foods for all population groups including infants below 16 weeks of age https://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/consultation/callsfordata/2018-00953_Call-for-data_mono-and-di-glycerides-of-fatty-acids-E471.pdf


EFSA, 2018. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) (2018). Re‐evaluation of carrageenan (E 407) and processed Eucheuma seaweed (E 407a) as food additives. EFSA Journal, 16(4), e05238. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5238


EFSA, 2018. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS), Younes, M., Aggett, P., Aguilar, F., Crebelli, R., Di Domenico, A., ... & Gott, D. (2018). Re‐evaluation of celluloses E 460 (i), E 460 (ii), E 461, E 462, E 463, E 464, E 465, E 466, E 468 and E 469 as food additives. EFSA Journal, 16(1), e05047. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5047


EFSA, 2018. Report on “Stability of sorbic acid (E 200) and its potassium salt (E 202) during food processing and storage”. Celanese Europe B.V. Review submitted to EFSA by EC on 23 October 2018 https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5625


EFSA, 2019. Outcome of the questions for health professionals in the fields of nephrology, mineral metabolism, cardiovascular and nutrition medicine on phosphates food additives re-evaluation. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/sp.efsa.2019.EN-1624


EFSA, 2019. Panel on Food Additives and Flavourings (FAF) (2019). Safety of the proposed amendment of the specifications for steviol glycosides (E 960) as a food additive: Rebaudioside M produced via enzyme‐catalysed bioconversion of purified stevia leaf extract. EFSA Journal, 17(10), e05867. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5867


EFSA, 2019. Panel on Food Additives and Flavourings (FAF), Younes, M., Aquilina, G., Castle, L., Engel, K. H., Fowler, P., ... & Husøy, T. (2019). Opinion on the follow‐up of the re‐evaluation of sorbic acid (E200) and potassium sorbate (E202) as food additives. EFSA Journal, 17(3), e05625. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5625


EFSA, 2019. Re-evaluation of phosphoric acid–phosphates – di-, tri- and polyphosphates (E 338–341, E 343, E 450–452) as food additives and the safety of proposed extension of use. EFSA Journal 2019;17(6):5674 https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5674


EFSA, 2019. Updated Re-evaluation of food additives : tentative work programme 2019. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/foodaddtentativewp19.pdf


EFSA, 2021. Safety assessment of titanium dioxide (E171) as a food additive. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2021.6585


Englund-Ögge L, Brantsæter AL, Haugen M, et al. Association between intake of artificially sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages and preterm delivery: a large prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(3):552-559. doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.031567 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22854404/


Fagherazzi G, Vilier A, Saes Sartorelli D, Lajous M, Balkau B, Clavel-Chapelon F. Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes in the Etude Epidemiologique aupres des femmes de la Mutuelle Generale de l'Education Nationale-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(3):517-523. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.050997 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23364017/


FDA, 2018. Azodicarbonamide (ADA) Frequently Asked Questions. https://www.fda.gov/food/food-additives-petitions/azodicarbonamide-ada-frequently-asked-questions#ADA


FDA, 2020. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Questions and Answers on Caramel Coloring and 4-MEI. https://www.fda.gov/food/food-additives-petitions/questions-answers-about-4-mei


Gao Y, Li C, Shen J, Yin H, An X, Jin H. Effect of food azo dye tartrazine on learning and memory functions in mice and rats, and the possible mechanisms involved. J Food Sci. 2011;76(6):T125-T129. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02267.x https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22417523/


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Halldorsson TI, Strøm M, Petersen SB, Olsen SF. Intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks and risk of preterm delivery: a prospective cohort study in 59,334 Danish pregnant women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(3):626-633. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.28968 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20592133/


Hartman PE. Review: putative mutagens and carcinogens in foods. II: sorbate and sorbate-nitrite interactions. Environ Mutagen. 1983;5(2):217-222. doi:10.1002/em.2860050209 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6861725/


He K, Zhao L, Daviglus ML, et al. Association of monosodium glutamate intake with overweight in Chinese adults: the INTERMAP Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16(8):1875-1880. doi:10.1038/oby.2008.274 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18497735/


He K, Du S, Xun P, et al. Consumption of monosodium glutamate in relation to incidence of overweight in Chinese adults: China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(6):1328-1336. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.008870 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21471280/


Hermanussen M, García AP, Sunder M, Voigt M, Salazar V, Tresguerres JA. Obesity, voracity, and short stature: the impact of glutamate on the regulation of appetite. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006;60(1):25-31. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602263 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16132059/


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